Readings and training materials PGSS 2009

General Introduction

The following papers are intended as introductions to the course as a whole.

  • Harald Bøckman, 'China Deconstructs? The Future of the Chinese Empire-State in a Historical Perspective', in Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik and David Strand, eds., Reconstructing Twentieth Century China: State Control, Civil Society and National Identity, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998). 
  • Wang Hui, Xiandai Zhongguo sixiangde xingqi, Shang juan, diyi bu, (Beijing: Sanlian 2005).

Keynote Lecture - Kwee Thiam Tjing (1900-1974): Rooted Cosmopolitan

Professor Benedict Anderson is Professor Emeritus of International Studies, Government and Asian Studies at Cornell University.

Benedict Anderson is working on a book about a Hokkien-Indonesian journalist and social critic, Kwee Thiam Tjing (1900-1974). According to Anderson, Kwee is one of the funniest writers he has ever encountered. At the same time, his tragic and bitter years 1939-47 resulted in one of the few masterpieces of Indonesian memoir literature.

Kwee was a strong and principled Indonesian nationalist, was proud of not being able to read Chinese characters or speak Mandarin, but he exploited his native Hokkien amazingly. He was an internationalist though he never left Indonesia till he was 60 years old, and returned there when getting ready to die. He knew Hokkien, Indonesian Malay, Dutch, Javanese, English, Madurese, and German. Some of his most brilliant effects were created by mixing these languages in his writings, making them almost impossible to translate.

Thoroughly post-Confucian, liberal-leftist, he spent time in prison for supporting not Chinese nationalism, but Achehnese. He was what Anderson characterises as a 'rooted cosmopolitan,' receiving whatever the world brought to him, laughing about it. In his great memoir, in the long section about the cruelty of the Japanese military occupation, he manages to have sympathy for a young Japanese officer who often came to the family house, out of homesickness: "Your mother looks and behaves so much like my poor mother at home in Japan."

People like Kwee were quietly silenced after Indonesian independence, because cosmopolitanism was 'rootless,' because Chinese had to be either Indonesians or Chinese, and because the national language had to be standardized and enforced.

Outline of Training Sessions

Relocalization and the Construction of Muslim Identity in South Fujian

Professor Fan Ke is professor of Anthropology and director of the Institution of Socio-Cultural Anthropology at Nanjing University.

The purpose of this presentation is to show students another kind of ethnicity phenomena in present-day China. Through the lecture, I hope students will understand that not all ethnicity in China today carries the meaning of resistance to mainstream society and the state. Ethnicity by many peoples in locales is a means to pursuing economic interests and public goods. How and why has this come about? How do peoples manage themselves in way of being ethnic? In providing the case of the construction of a Muslim identity in Quanzhou, a costal city in south Fujian, this lecture aims to answer these questions.

By examining the construction of Muslim identity in recent decades, this presentation explores the applicability of the concept of network in a study that I have been involved in, but which was itself less inspired by a concept as such. It is impossible to consider the recent conducts of the South Fujian Hui in terms of identity politics without ignoring a changing macro backdrop of regional, national, and even global processes. In recent years, Hui ethnicity has even been presented by the local government, as well as by the Hui elite, as the main ethnic identity of this area. As a result, the Hui ethnicity in the Quanzhou area is seen as part of a Muslim network that reaches far beyond local and even national boundaries. Through this process, Quanzhou has now become what might be called a site of interchange within the global Muslim network, as it fashions itself as a center of Islam in a country on the periphery of the Islamic world.

This presentation examines why and how Quanzhou has become partly re-localized by focusing on making the place somewhat Islamic. This change, I argue, was initiated by the local government, but has been increasingly enhanced by local elites who have claimed their ancestry to the middle-century maritime Muslims. It is argued that making the place a site of interchange within the present-day global Islamic network is a way to collect symbolic capital, on the one hand, and at the same time, to create a channel to make money through the building up of so-called Islamic tourism. By exploring the meanings produced through organizing academic conferences, making architectural representation, and engaging in several projects concentrated on the construction of Muslim identity, either by the local government or the Hui elites, this presentation interprets the conduct of the local government and elites since 1980s as a consequence related to the waves of economical globalization and ways to practice the reform-policy of opening up to the world.

Questions for Discussion:

  • What does this case tell us about ethnicity in a different sense?
  • In what way can we argue that over-communication of ethnic identity among the south Fujian Hui is somewhat impacted by the flow of globalization?
  • In your point of view, should countries like China officially carry out particular preferential policies toward ethnic minorities? If we are certain that such a policy would benefit the people, why might it be received differently among different ethnic minorities, like the Hui in south Fujian and among some Uyghurs and Tibetans, for example?

Required Readings:

  • Fan Ke, 'Ups and Downs: Local Muslim History in South China', Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 23.1 (April 2003), pp 63-87.
  • Fan Ke, 'Maritime Muslims and the Hui Identity: A South Fujian Case', Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 21.2 (October 2001), pp 309-332.
  • Gillette, Maris Boyd, Between Mecca and Beijing: Modernization and Consumption Among Urban Chinese Muslims, (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000).
  • 'The Hui Ethnic Minority', China Internet Information Center, 20 September 2005.

Further Readings:

  • Chuah, Osman, 'Muslims in China: The Social and Economic Situation of the Hui Chinese', Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 24.1 (April 2004), pp 155-162.
  • Fan Ke, 'Traditionalism and Identity Politics in South Fujian' in Tan Chee-Beng (ed.), South Fujian: Reproduction of Tradition in Post, (Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong Press, 2006), pp 33-65.
  • Gladney, Dru, Ethnic Identity in China: The Making of a Muslim Minority Nationality, (Harcourt Brace College Publishers: 1998).
  • Gladney, Dru, 'Dialogic Identities' in Dru Gladney, Dislocating China: Muslims, Minorities, and other Subaltern Subjects, (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2004), pp 150-175.
  • Green, Sandra Aili, 'Tracing Muslim Roots: A Brief History of the Hui', Education about Asia, 10.1 (Spring 2005), pp 34-35.
  • Israeli, Raphael, 'Muslims in China: The Incompatibility between Islam and the Chinese Order' and 'Ethnicity, Religion, Nationality, and Social Conflict: The Case of Chinese Muslims' in Raphael Israeli, Islam in China: Religion, Ethnicity, Culture, and Politics, (Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2002).

A Catholic Village in North China: Lineage, Temple Cult, Nationalism and Transnational Identity, 1700-2000

Professor Henrietta Harrison is professor of History with a specialty in modern China at the History Department, Harvard University.

Questions for Discussion:

  • How was transnational identity and local community bound up with the Catholic religious practice of Shanxi villagers?
  • What is Christianity in practice? What does Christianity mean for the authors of the commemorative stele in the readings?
  • Why did some Shanxi people choose to die rather than leave the Catholic church in 1900?

Required Readings:

  • 'Shanxi sheng gengzi nian jiaonan qianhou jishi' [A record of the events before and after the 1900 persecution in Shanxi province] in Zhongguo shixuehui ed., Yihetuan [The Boxers], (Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe, 1957), vol 1 p 511-523.
  • Ryan Dunch, 'Beyond Cultural Imperialism: Cultural Theory, Christian Missions, and Global Modernity', History and Theorym 41.3 (2002).
  • Henrietta Harrison, 'A Penny for the Little Chinese": The French Holy Childhood Association in China, 1843-1951.', American Historical Review, 113.1 (2008).

Participants will need a basic knowledge of the events of the Boxer Uprising of 1900. If necessary please make sure you read the appropriate part of a textbook of modern Chinese history.

Further Readings:


  • C.A. Bayly, Sven Beckert, Matthew Connelly, Isabel Hofmeyr, Wendy Kozol, and Patricia Seed, 'AHR Conversation: On Transnational History', American Historical Review, 111.5 (2006).


  • C. A. Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World 1780-1914, (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004).
  • Daniel H. Bays, ed., Christianity in China from the Eighteenth-Century to the Present, (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996).
  • Liam Matthew Brockey, Journey to the East: The Jesuit Mission in China, 1579-1724, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007).
  • Paul A. Cohen, History in Three Keys: The Boxers as Event, Experience and Myth, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997).
  • Ryan Dunch, Fuzhou Protestants and the Making of Modern China, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001).
  • Jane Hunter, The Gospel of Gentility: American Women Missionaries in Turn-of-the-Century China, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984).
  • Kenneth Scott Latourette, A History of Christian Missions in China, (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1929).
  • Robert A. Orsi, Between Heaven and Earth: The Religious Worlds People Make and the Scholars who Study Them, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005).

Ecology and the Minzu Project

Professor Stevan Harrell is professor of Anthropology at the University of Washington.

Abstract: This presentation looks at the interaction between environmental degradation, environmental restoration, ecosystem resilience, sustainable livelihood in the context of the nationalities policies of the Chinese Communist Party and the way they have been implemented over the past 60 years. The argument will proceed roughly as follows: In China, as elsewhere, ethnic boundaries are strongly influenced by ecological boundaries. This means that the Developmentalist Project undertaken by the CCP state has also been a project to replace minority peoples' sustainable livelihoods with modernist ecological regimes that increase productivity in the short-run but diminish ecosystem resilience in the long run. Furthermore, the state's belated recognition of the environmental degradation resulting from its own policies has led to further modernist efforts to reverse the damage without taking into account the sustainable livelihoods that minority people have previously practiced. But there is a ray of hope stemming from the even more belated recognition that there is something to be learned from the local knowledge that developed in conjunction with these previous sustainable livelihoods. I refer to several examples, but my two primary case studies come from the interaction of state projects with Mongol and Kazak herders on the northern steppe frontiers and with Akha and Nuosu upland agro-silvio-pastoralists in the Southwest.

Questions for Discussion:

  • Environmental history has stressed the environmentally harmful aspects of capitalism, stemming from the profit motive built into capitalist systems. Are/were socialist systems fundamentally different in any way, or are they both simply outgrowths of what James Scott has called 'Seeing Like a State'?
  • The CCP developmentalist regime stresses the ability of science and scientific management to solve all sorts of problems, including environmental ones. Why has science been unsuccessful in solving such problems so far?
  • To what extent has the top-down environmental management style of the CCP regime been shaped by the Morgan-Engels-Stalin typology of social evolution and the classification of all minority groups into a series of stages based on this typology?
  • It is documented that agro-silvio-pastoralists of the Southwest and pastoralists of the Inner Asian Frontier practiced sustainable livelihoods for millennia before the advent of the developmentalist state. But one undeniable accomplishment of the developmentalist state has been reduced mortality, leading to tripling or quadrupling of population. Is it still reasonable to expect the traditional livelihoods of minority peoples to be sustainable at three to four times their previous population density?
  • How do the environmental, educational, and scientific aspects of China's minority policy resemble or differ from those of other comparable developmentalist regimes encountering indigenous peoples in their peripheral regions. Consider your own country, whether the US, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, or the Nordic countries.
  • Can the effort by indigenous and sympathetic outside scholars to rescue, record, and valorize minority people's traditional ecological knowledge play a useful role in the design of contemporary versions of sustainable livelihoods in minority areas? If so, how; if not, why not?

Required Readings (best read in the following order):

  • Janet Sturgeon, 'Claiming and Naming Resources on the Border of the State: Akha Strategies in China and Thailand', China Quarterly, 178 (August 1997): 131-144.
  • Dee Mack Williams, 'Representations of Nature on the Mongolian Steppe', American Anthropologist, 102(3): 503-519, 2000.
  • Emily Yeh, 'From Wasteland to Wetland? Nature and Nation in China's Tibet', Environmental History, 14 (January 2009), pp. 103-137.
  • Lauren S. Urgenson et al., 'Socio-Ecological Resilience of a Nuosu Community-Linked Watershed, Southwest Sichuan, China'.

Further Readings:


  • Astrid Cerny, Chapter 7 'Increasing Control: Fencing and Settlement Constrain Nomads' and Chapter 8 'Meat is Everywhere', from In Search for Greener Pastures: Sustainable Development for Kazak Pastoralists in Xinjiang, China, Ph.D. dissertation in Geography, University of Washington, 2008. Note: No further dissemination permitted.
  • Ralph Litzinger, 'The Mobilization of "Nature": Perspectives from Northwest Yunnan', China Quarterly, 178 (2004): 488-504.
  • Horst Weyerhaeuser et al., 'Local Impacts and Responses to Regional Forest Conservation and Rehabilitation Programs in China's Yunnan Province', Agricultural Systems, 85, 3: 234-253, 2005.
  • Jianchu Xu et al., 'Integrating Sacred Knowledge for Conservation: Cultures and Landscapes in Southwest China', Ecology and Society, 10, 2: Article 10, 2005.


  • Janet Sturgeon, Border Landscapes: The Politics of Akha Land Use in China and Thailand, (University of Washington Press, 2005).
  • Dee Mack Williams, Beyond Great Walls: Environment, Identity, and Development on the Chinese Grasslands, (Stanford University Press, 2002).

Confucianism, Chinese Tradition, and the CCP's Modernised Propaganda and Thought Work

Dr Anne-Marie Brady is associate professor in Political Science and Communication, University of Canterbury. Her specialty is China's international relations and domestic politics.

In Marxist terms, ideology is determined by a society's material conditions. From 1978, and even more so from 1992, China has followed a decidedly different pattern of development from that of the Mao era, and the Chinese Communist Party's (CCP) ideology has progressively evolved to reflect this change. A notable theme in the ongoing evolution of the CCP's contemporary ideology has been the growing influence of Confucian concepts and terminology. Historically Party ideologues denounced Confucianism and traditional Chinese culture as "feudal" and sought to erase their influence on Chinese society. This paper explores the role Confucianism and other Chinese philosophies are now playing in the CCP's contemporary propaganda and thought work and how the new emphasis relates to the revival of popular interest in Chinese traditional philosophy and culture. The paper concludes with an analysis of what this shift in ideological content can tell us about the changing nature of political power in the People's Republic of China today.

Questions for Discussion:

  • Why is propaganda and thought work so important to the CCP?
  • What role has propaganda and thought work played in strengthening the political status quo in China after 1989?
  • Why is the CCP now promoting some aspects of Confucianism, when historically they were opposed to it?
  • How does China's contemporary State Confucianism differ from Popular and Religious Confucianism, and scholarly debates on "New Confucianism"?

Required Readings:

  • Anne-Marie Brady, 'Confucianism, Chinese Tradition, and the CCP's Modernised Propaganda and Thought Work', Draft paper, not for circulation or citation without permission.
  • Sebastien Billoud and Joel Thoraval, 'Anshen liming or the Religious Dimensions of the Revival of Confucianism', China Perspectives, March 2008.
  • Anne-Marie Brady, 'Guiding Hand: The Role of the Central Propaganda Department in the Current Era', Westminster Papers in Communication and Culture, Issue 3.1, Spring 2006.
  • Anne-Marie Brady and Wang Juntao, 'China’s Strengthened New Order and the Role of Propaganda', Journal of Contemporary China (forthcoming) 2009.
  • Huang Zhuoyue, 'Ruxue zhengtizhuyi huayu de houxiandai fansi', Association of Asian Studies Conference, Chicago, March 2009.

Further Readings:

  • Bernays, Edward, 'Engineering of Consent', Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 250, March 1947, pp. 113-20.
  • Chomsky, Noam and Edward S. Herman, Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, (Pantheon Books, 1988).
  • Jensen, Lionel M., Manufacturing Confucianism: Chinese Traditions and Universal Civilization, (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1997).
  • Lasswell, Harold, Propaganda Technique in the World War, (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1927).
  • Lippmann, Walter, Public Opinion, (New York: Macmillan, 1922).
  • John Makeham (ed.), New Confucianism: A Critical Examination, (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003).
  • Zhao Yuezhi, Communication in China: Political Economy, Power, and Conflict, (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008).

The Racial Question and International Development of Modern China

Professor Chen Qianping is the director of the Department of History, the deputy head of the Research Institute of Sun Yat-sen Thoughts, and board member of the Academic Degree Committee at Nanjing University.




Questions for Discussion:


Required Readings:

  • 陈谦平, 国际发展与民族融合--中华民族历史变迁的轨迹.
  • 杨建新, '"中国"一词和中国疆域形成再探讨', China's Borderland History and Geography Studies, Vol. 116, No. 12, June 2006.
  • 张永, '从_十八星旗_到_五色旗_辛亥革命时期从汉族国家到五族共和国家的建国模式转变', Journal of Peking University (Humanities and Social Sciences), Vol. 39 , No. 2, March 2002.
  • 沈志华, '中苏结盟与苏联对新疆政策的变化'.

Further Readings:

  • 徐杰舜 and 韦小鹏, '中华民族多元一体格局_理论研究述评', 《民族研究》2008 年第2 期.
  • 刘晓原, '蒙古问题_与冷战初期美国对华政策'.
  • 陈谦平, '1943年中英关于西藏问题的交涉'.
  • 刘存宽, '中俄关系与外蒙古自中国的分离(1911-1915)'.
  • Sergei G. Luzyanin, '中国与苏维埃俄国之间的蒙古(1920-1924)' (transl. 'Mongolia: between Russia and China (1920-1924): Problems of the Far East'), China's Borderland History and Geography Studies, Vol. 12, No. 2, June 2002.
  • 袁澍, '民国新疆归化军探析'.
  • 孙宏年, '相对成熟的西方边疆理论简论(1871-1945)', China's Borderland History and Geography Studies, Vol. 15, No. 2, June 2005.
  • 梁俊艳, '英国与阿古柏政权关系研究'.
  • 章永俊, '西方近代边疆理论的初步发展', China's Borderland History and Geography Studies, Vol. 15, No. 2, June 2005.

'The Chinese Nation' (Zhonghua minzu) and the Resurgence of Cultural Nationalism in China

Professor Harald Bøckman is a research fellow in the Department of East Asian Studies at the University of Oslo. His field of interest is in Chinese ethnic history, and the Naxi books of divination.

The presentation will look at the phenomenon of resurging cultural nationalism in China by summarizing and analyzing Fei Xiaotong's seminal paper from 1988, "The Pattern of the Chinese Nation as a Pluralistic, Integrated Whole" (Zhonghua minzude duoyuan yiti geju).

The article under the Required Readings by the undersigned both explains the rationale behind the presentation and discusses the significance of the theme. The Chinese text of Fei's original article is also given, as well as two shorter pieces by Fei.

Questions for Discussion:

  • Based on your knowledge of China's long history, does Fei's assertion that there has ever since ancient times existed objectively a Chinese nation make sense?
  • What do you think the implications of implementing Fei's theoretical edifice will be if it is carried out in practice?
  • Is it your impression that Fei's recommendations have become part of the official discourse by the present CCP ideologists?

Required Readings:

  • Harald Bøckman,'"The Chinese Nation" (Zhonghua minzu) and the Resurgence of Cultural Nationalism in China', Unpublished paper 2001, 28 pp.
  • 费孝通著:中华民族多元一体格局 is taken from 费孝通主编:中华民族多元一体格局 (修订本)。北京:中央民族大学出版社,1999.
  • 费孝通著:我的民族研究经历和思考 is taken from 马戎、周星主编:中华民族凝聚力形成与发展。 北京:北京大学出版社,1999.
  • 费孝通著:中华文化在新世纪面临的挑战 is taken from 方克立、郭少棠、王俊义主编:中华文化与二十一世纪,上卷。北京:中国社会科学出版社, 2000。

Further Readings:

  • Frank Dikötter, 'Race as Lineage' and 'Race as Nation' in The Discourse of Race in China, (London: Hurst, 1992), pp 61-125.
  • Prasenjit Duara, 'Linear History and the Nation-state' in Rescuing History from the Nation, (Chicago, Chicago UP: 1995), pp 17-50.

The Development of Hakka Identity In and Beyond China

Professor Flemming Christiansen is director of the National Institute of Chinese Studies (NICS), White Rose East Asia Centre, University of Leeds. His specialty is livelihoods, social strata and classes in China, Chinese rural development and urbanisation, and identity politics in China and among Chinese.

This session will explore the multiple dimensions of identity politics that exists around the Hakka (kejia) group in China and in other countries. The Hakkas in China form a dialect group in southern parts of China, in Hong Kong and in Taiwan, but are also spread across the world in the Chinese Diaspora. They are normally conceived to be part of the Han Nationality, and have been the centre of a lore of frugality and good character. Hakka identity is highly politicised in relations across the Taiwan Strait and across the world in overseas Chinese communities.

The teaching will be structured in a presentation that will introduce analytical notions of ethnic boundary management and claims-making, as well as a training session where students analyse a number of texts about the Hakkas. The texts reveal different perspectives on the Hakkas, and students will be required to form opinions on the context and background of the view of the Hakkas held by various authors.

Students who are able to get hold of James Michener's classic novel Hawai'i from 1959 are particularly encouraged to read it as preparation for the class, focusing on the description of the Hakka protagonist.

Required Readings:

  • Mary S. Erbaugh, 'The Secret History of the Hakkas: The Chinese Revolution as a Hakka Enterprise', The China Quarterly, Volume 132, December 1992, pp 937-968 doi:10.1017/S0305741000045495. Published online by Cambridge University Press 12 Feb 2009.
  • Wang Lijung, 'Diaspora, Identity and Cultural Citizenship: The Hakkas in 'Multicultural Taiwan'', Ethnic and Racial Studies, Volume 30, Number 5, September 2007, pp. 875-895(21). Published online by Ingenta Connect.
  • Joseph Tsang Mang Kin, Hakka Destiny: Challenge And Response, 2004.

Further Readings:

  • James A. Michener, Hawai'i, (New York, Random House 1959).
  • Leong Sow-Theng, Migration and Ethnicity in Chinese History: Hakkas, Pengmin, and their Neighbors (edited by Tim Wright, with an introduction and maps by G. William Skinner), (Stanford, California, Stanford University Press, 1997).
  • Chin Woon Ping, Hakka Soul: Memories, Migrations, and Meals, (Singapore, NUS Press, 2008).
  • Jessie G. Lutz and Rolland Ray Lutz, Hakka Chinese Confront Protestant Christianity, 1850-1900, (Armonk, N.Y., M.E. Sharpe, 1997).
  • Nicole Constable (Ed.), Guest people: Hakka identity in China and Abroad, (Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1996).
  • Nicole Constable, Christian Souls and Chinese Spirits: a Hakka Community in Hong Kong, (Berkeley University of California Press, 1994).

Producing the City and Consuming the Nation: Reflections on Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai

Dr Maurizio Marinelli was formerly senior lecturer in East Asian Studies at the Centre for East Asian Studies, University of Bristol. He is now director of the Centre for Social & Cultural Change in China Investment at the University of Technology Sydney.

2008 Beijing Olympics slogan

城市,让 生活更美好
Better City, Better Life!

This session will focus on the interplay between the concepts of imagining the nation and constructing the city in modern and contemporary China. The first part will consist of a presentation. This will offer a broad historical and geographical perspective on the chosen theme. It will also help to highlight a few crucial moments in the historical development of Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai.

The second part of the session will investigate a specific case study: the participants will be invited to analyse and discuss five selected scholarly articles on the 2008 Beijing Olympics. The analysis should be based on the double lens of cityscape's production and nation's consumption, both on the eve of the Beijing Olympics and afterwards. As suggested by the above indicated slogans, it is important to take into consideration the next Chinese appointment with a mega-event: the 2010 Shanghai World Expo.

Structure of the Session:

A. Lecture (30 minutes);
B. Short clips (10 minutes) from various documentaries;
C. Group activity (20 minutes: group analysis + 60 minutes: open discussion).

  • We will break into five groups. The members of each group will be required to concentrate on one specific journal article (even though all the participants are required to do all the essential readings before attending the session).
  • The subdivision into groups will be as follows: Group 1 (students whose surname begins with the letters A-E), Group 2 (students whose surname begins with the letters F-K), Group 3 (students whose surname begins with the letters I-0), Group 4 (students whose surname begins with the letters P-T), and Group 5 (students whose surname begins with the letters U-Z).
  • The members of each group will choose a passage that they found particularly engaging and relevant to the main topic (i.e. city's production and nation's consumption). They will highlight the passage in the text (or re-type it, if possible), and formulate one relevant question.
  • Each group will choose a spokesperson. S/he will be in charge of reading the passage and the relevant question out loud. In this way, the question will be brought to the attention of all the participants. The spokesperson and his group members will offer some preliminary comments, as a way to sparkle the discussion. Time management is essential: please remember that you have 10 minutes per article (i.e. per question).

Required Readings:

  • C.R. Pramod, 'The Spectacle of the Beijing Olympics and the Dynamics of State Society Relationship in PRC', China Report, 44: 2 (2008), 111-137.
  • Anne-Marie Brady, 'The Beijing Olympics as a Campaign of Mass Distraction', The China Quarterly, Volume 197, March 2009, pp 1-24, doi:10.1017/S0305741009000058, Published online by Cambridge University Press 30 Mar 2009.
  • Kevin Latham, 'Media, the Olympics and the Search for the "Real China"', The China Quarterly, Volume 197, March 2009, pp 25-43, doi:10.1017/S0305741009000022, Published online by Cambridge University Press 30 Mar 2009.
  • Susan Brownell, 'Beijing's Olympic Education Programme: Re-Thinking Suzhi Education', Re-Imagining an International China, The China Quarterly, Volume 197, March 2009, pp 44-63, doi:10.1017/S0305741009000034, Published online by Cambridge University Press 30 Mar 2009.
  • Geremie R. Barmé, 'China's Flat Earth: History and 8 August 2008', The China Quarterly, Volume 197, March 2009, pp 64-86, doi:10.1017/S0305741009000046, Published online by Cambridge University Press 30 Mar 2009.

For those of you who can read Chinese, I would suggest the following article:

郑必坚, 郑必坚诠释中国和平崛起:实现文明复兴和强国梦, 14 June 2006.

Further Readings:

If you have time, please also take a look at the two special issues published by China Review, issue 42 (Spring 2008) on the built environment and issue 43 (Summer 2008) on the Olympic Games.

Also, please look at the article 'Building a New Old City in Kashgar: China, Central Asia, Cultural Clash' by Zhou Yu from Phoenix Weekly, which can be found here.


  • Anne-Marie Broudehoux, The Making and Selling of Post-Mao Beijing, (New York, Routledge, 2004).
  • Susan Brownell, Beijing Games, (USA, Rowan & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2008).
  • Lillian Li, Alison J. Dray-Novey & Haili Kong, Beijing from Imperial Capital to Olympic City, (Basingstoke, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2007).
  • J.A. Mangan, Ding Jinxia, (eds) Beijing 2008, Preparing for Glory, Chinese Challenge in the 'Chinese Century', (London, Routledge, 2009).
  • Monroe E. Price and Daniel Dayan, (eds), Owning the Olympics, Narratives of the New China, (USA, The University of Michigan Press, 2008).
  • Xu Guoqi, Olympic Dreams, China and Sports, 1985-2008, (USA, Harvard University Press, 2008).


  • David Black and Shona Bezanson, 'The Olympic Games, Human Rights and Democratisation: Lessons from Seoul and Implications for Beijing', Third World Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 7, 'Going Global: The Promises and Pitfalls of Hosting Global Games' (2004), pp. 1245-1261.
  • Anne-Marie Broudehoux, 'Seeds of Dissent: The Politics of Resistance to Beijing's Olympic Redevelopment' in Melissa Butcher and Selvaraj Velayutham (eds.) Dissent and Resistance in Asian Cities, (London, Routledge 2009), pp.14-31.
  • Kevin Caffrey, (2008), 'Epilogue: Sideshoe Beijing 2008: An absence of Euphoria beyond the Southern Clouds', International History of Sport, 25:7, 935-951.
  • Dai Qing, 'Thirsty Dragon at the Olympics', New York Review of Books, Volume 54, Number 19, December 6, 2007, available at
  • Elizabeth C. Economy and Adam Segal, 'China's Olympic Nightmare: What the Games Mean for Beijing's Future', Foreign Affairs, Vol. 87, No 4. pp. 47-56.
  • Fan Hong, Ping Wu and Huan Xiong, (2005), 'Beijing Ambitions: An Analysis of the Chinese Elite Sport System and Its Olympic Strategy for the 2008 Olympic Games', International Journal of the History of Sport, 22:4, 510-529.
  • Jacques deLisle, 'One World Different Dreams: The Contest to Define the Beijing Olympics', in Monroe E. Price and Daniel Dayan, (eds.), Owning the Olympics, Narratives of the New China, (USA, The University of Michigan Press, 2008).
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